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Glossary

BSD

Berkeley Software Distribution. A UNIX operating system developed by Berkeley, the University of California.

builtin

A command which does not have its own executable but is part of the shell itself.

Debian

A popular and influential GNU/Linux distribution

GNU

"GNU's Not Unix". A project to develop an open source operating system. Includes many of the utilities which run on top of the Linux kernel.

Linux

A Unix-like computer operating systems using the Linux kernel.

PID

Process ID. Unique identifier given to a running program.

shell

A piece of software that provides a command line interface for users of an operating system.

Solaris

A Unix operating system developed by Sun Microsystems.

stderr

Standard error. An output stream typically used by programs to output error messages or diagnostics. Uses file descriptor 2.

stdin

Standard input. The default input stream into a Unix program. Uses file descriptor 0.

stdout

Standard output. The default output stream from a Unix program. Uses file descriptor 1.

Ubuntu

A popular GNU/Linux distribution originally based on Debian.

Unix

An operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs.